Africa - History (Prehistory)
In Africa there are the oldest traces of human travel.
The continent has accommodated many peoples, which over time
have merged and split up, expanded and wiped out, and some
ethnic groups are during the 1900s. arose as a result of the
administrative measures of the European colonial powers. Our
knowledge of Africa's history is based on a combination of
written sources, oral traditions and archaeological,
linguistic and ethnological analyzes.
In Africa, man can be followed further back in time than
anywhere else on Earth. See
Abbreviationfinder. From the Rift Valley in East Africa
and from limestone caves in South Africa, numerous finds of
skeletal parts come from a now extinct human genus,
Australopithecus species, which lived for between 4 and 1
million. years ago. The most famous Australopithecus
find is the skeleton of a flimsy female, Lucy, from Hadar in
Ethiopia. However, there is no evidence that she and her
relatives used tools.
Ancient mansion (About 2 million to 120,000 years ago)
Between 2 and 1.8 million years ago the species Homo
habilis lived, which is regarded as the ancestor of man
(see man). at the Koobi Forums in Kenya and the Olduvai
Gorge in Tanzania, along with primitive stone tools, pebble
tools. Findings of these oldest tools, the so-called
ancientowan culture, are also known from Ethiopia, from the
Omodale in the south and Hadar in the north.
The oldest finds of handcuffs are also from Olduvai and
Koobi Fora in East Africa and are 1.5 million. years old.
They belong to the acheulene culture that spread throughout
most of Africa. The older stages are linked to the species
Homo erectus, the younger to archaic or early
sapiens types. Settlements were found on the lakes and
along the great rivers Vaal, Zambezi and the upper Nile. In
times of humid climate, in the Sahara, elephants and wild
oxen have been hunted in environments that had the nature of
savanna. From the coast of Casablanca, Morocco, the bones
and bones of Homo erectus are known in caves from
the middle and younger acheulées, for example at Sidi Abd
al-Rahman. Similar findings are known from Ternifine in
Middle and Younger Palaeolithic (About 120,000-10,000
From the beginning of this period, a more developed set
of tools appears, among other things. with slices of
prepared blocks in the so-called levalloist technique, small
towels and triangular tips, which characterize the moustéria
in Europe and Asia. Traces of settlement include found in
caves at the mouth of the Klasie River in South Africa,
where fish were harvested, collected seafood and hunted wild
oxen and antelopes. One of the earliest findings of Homo
sapiens, known at all, dates from this. In the course
of the Palaeolithic, different tooling cultures developed.
There was no one-step development that would allow a clear
transition from the Middle to the Young Palaeolithic in
Africa. Microspotting technique tips, microliter known from
Europe in the Mesolithic after 9500 BC, appears in Africa
earlier than in other continents. At the mouth of the Klasie
River and in Border Cave in South Africa, microliths are
found in layers that are at least 38,000 years old.
Elsewhere, the older tradition of making tools continued,
for example in the Apollo 11 cave in Namibia, where one also
finds the oldest rock art in Africa with an age of approx.
After a period of dry climate, the Sahara was again
populated for approx. 100,000 years ago by a population that
used mosquito nets. Gradually, a special tool tradition was
created: the Atéria, which was characterized in particular
by slender, finely chopped tips with a shank tongue.
Until approx. 44,000 years ago, in the southwestern
Egypt, gazelles could be hunted on the savannah. But during
the strictest period of the last ice age, between 38,000 and
13,000 years ago, the Sahara again dried up and the glacier
ice covered the highest of the Atlas Mountains.
Oldest food production
In Eastern Sahara, 19000-16000 years ago, various
approaches to gathering wild grasses and grains, as well as
selective hunting and perhaps beginning domestication of
animals, occurred. The oldest millstones are approx. 16,000
years old. Collection of wild barley may have taken place
for approx. 12,000 years ago, but at the time, as in West
Asia, it did not lead to the development of long-term
farming communities. By contrast, you look for approx. 9500
BC settlements both along the Nile, on the Turkana Lake in
East Africa and along the Sahara rivers, where the
predominant profession was fishing and hunting. The humid
climate at the beginning of the current heating season may
have created a wealth of natural resources that made it
possible to live as permanent hunters, fishermen and
collectors. Pottery began in Sahara 7500-6500 BC and at
Khartoum approx. 6000 BC In Egypt, ceramics first appear
approx. 4500 BC.
From approx. 7000 BC arose in Eastern Sahara the first
permanent agricultural communities whose population
included, among other things. fed on millet, barley and
dates and kept sheep and goats. This peasant culture is
believed to have originated locally in contrast to later
communities in the Nile Valley, whose knowledge of arable
farming and cattle breeding may have originated in West
Asia. In central Sahara there is evidence of cattle farming
from ca. 5000 BC Images of cattle along with hunting scenes
are maintained in numerous rock paintings.
In the period 5000-3000 BC agricultural crops arose in
West Africa, where it is believed that the cultivation of
African rice and yam root may have started. Persistent
habitation in northeastern Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon led to
the formation of urban highlands.
In East Africa, a resident population of cattle breeders
has existed from ca. 3000 BC and until less than 1000 years
ago. Dehydration - which is still taking place - then forced
the population to live as nomads.
Along the lower Nile were found from ca. 5000 BC a
population that grew wheat, barley and flax and kept cattle,
sheep, goats and donkeys. Settlements with small oval houses
have been found in al-Fayyum and in the Nile Delta. During
the pre-dynastic time in Egypt, until approx. 3100 BC,
centers along the Nile developed with increasing
occupational specialization and social division, forming the
basis for the rise of Egyptian civilization.
Well-organized peasant communities existed from ca. 4000
BC along the upper Nile in Sudan, for example at Kadero,
where the inhabited area comprised four hectares. Findings
from Nubian burial sites from the same time testify to
prosperity and connection with the northern regions along
the lower Nile, from which artefacts of flint and copper
originate. In Sudanese Nubia, approx. 1700 BC an important
center in Kerma, whose rulers were buried in giant burial
mounds, up to 80 meters in diameter.