Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the October presidential
election, three presidents were elected, according to the
constitution. For the Bosnian Serbs (Republika Srpska),
Milorad Dodik, who is for a split between Bosnia and
Herzegovina, won for the Serbs SDA's Šefik Džaferović and
for the Croatians Social Democrat Željko Komšić from the
party HDZ. The election was preceded by a campaign full of
ethnic tensions. The question was very much about whether
the country should be united or divided and whether to
approach the EU or not.
Countryaah.com, the country's complex political system with three
presidents is a product of the Balkan war in the early
1990s. After the war, the country was divided into two
halves, one side dominated by Serbs and the other by Croats
and Muslims. The term of office of the three presidents
rotates and you are governed eight months each.
At the beginning of the year, an investigation was
started about a paramilitary organization called "Serbian
honor". It is suspected that it was created as a means of
pressure against people who oppose Bosnian Serb President
Milorad Dodik. Reports have come that the organization's
members have been trained by Russians. The aim of the
Russians would be to create instability in the region and
opposition to NATO and the EU, etc.
The results of the first census since 2013 were published
in June 2016. Republica Srpska asked questions both for the
method of the census and for the results. In October, local
elections were carried out in a climate of increasing
nationalist rhetoric. The biggest winner of the election was
the Serbian Social Democracy SNSD, which got the mayor post
in 32 municipalities out of 143. An increase of 9. The
Croatian nationalist conservative HDZ got the mayor post in
19 municipalities; a rise of 7. The Serbian nationalist SDS
party got the mayor post in 16; a decline of 16. The Bosnian
SDA got the mayor post in 30; a decline of 7.
The federation's parliament passed amendments to the
Criminal Code that made hate crimes punishable. The law
works with a broad definition of hate crimes that covers
both written and oral communication as well as violence
directed at specific national, ethical or religious groups.
Sexual orientation fell outside the definition, and
therefore the persecution of LGBT people could continue
At the War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague (ICTY), former
Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic was convicted in March
2016 of genocide, crimes against humanity and violations of
the laws of war. The sentence was 40 years in prison.
Bosnian Serb general Ratko Mladics was sentenced to life
imprisonment for genocide, crimes against humanity and
violations of the laws of war in November 2017. The highest
responsibility for the massacre in Srebrenica 20 years
earlier was thus placed. The message to the hangmen of the
world was clear: you will be caught for your crimes in the
end. Unless you had NATO officers on their heads when the
crime was committed. The Nuremberg Process also dealt only
with the losing party's war crimes. The winning party's
crimes were never punished.