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Brazil

Yearbook 2018

Brazil. As expected, Jair Bolsonaro was elected new president in the second round of the presidential election on October 28, with just over 55% of the votes cast, against just under 45% for competitor Fernando Haddad of the Labor Party (PT). According to opinion polls, the most popular candidate and former president Lula da Silva, in prison following a conviction for corruption, were not allowed to stand. He handed himself over to police in early April in dramatic forms.

2018 Brazil

According to Countryaah.com, Bolsonaro, a former military officer, had made himself known for a series of homophobic, sexist, racist and media hostile statements as well as tributes to the military dictatorship of 1964–85. The whole year was also characterized by upset feelings from both sides, although Bolsonaro muted the tone slightly the closer the election day came. Most of his constituents, however, seemed to pay more attention to his speech on combating corruption and crime - two phenomena that haunted Brazil for many decades. Bolsonaro's victory was explained not only by PT's failures in these areas but also by a deteriorating economy. A series of corruption scandals have also persecuted the party for many years since Lula was elected president in 2002 and lowered Haddad's credibility.

The election was preceded by a tumultuous and highly polarized election campaign. Human rights activist Marielle Franco was murdered in mid-March, and Bolsonaro himself was stabbed during an election in early September. The election also meant a marked right turn in Brazilian politics after four consecutive presidential elections for PT. By contrast, Bolsonaro's campaign message was little concrete and often contradictory, which together with controversial statements by his co-workers that he was forced to modify, made it difficult for voters and analysts to really know what kind of policy he will follow. Both Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and Greenpeace expressed concern that human rights and environmental issues will be in danger.

At the same time as the presidential election, governor elections were held, which together reflected both the presidential and congressional elections. PT won four governor posts in the Northeast but lost, among others, in the populous state of Minas Gerais. Bolsonaro's own small Social Liberal Party (PSL) won in three fairly peripheral states, while the established parties Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB) and Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB) lost half of their governor posts. However, PSDB won in the important São Paulo. In the Chamber of Deputies, PT lost 13 seats but remains the largest party with 56 seats, with the PSL just below with 52 seats. In the Senate, PT's loss was even greater, from 13 to four seats, and thus has as many as Bolsonaro's PSL. PSDB and MDB also declined in Congress but are still major parties.

A catastrophic fire destroyed September 2 of Brazil's 200-year-old National Museum in Rio de Janeiro. Of the museum's 20 million objects from ancient Egypt and Rome as well as from Latin American origin civilizations, 90% were destroyed. Strong criticism was directed at President Michel Temer for cuts in the cultural budget that led to inadequate maintenance of the building.

Brasília

Brazil, the capital of Brazil, set in a sparsely populated savanna landscape (cerrado) on the Goiano Highlands for approximately 1150 m altitude. Together with eight satellite cities and a total of 2.79 million. eg (2013), Brazil has constitutional special status as a federal district. This Distrito Federal occupies an area of ​​5800 km2, which was taken from the state of Goiás at the city's inauguration in 1960.

It attracted international attention when, in 1957, the Brazilian government decided to deprive the dynamic metropolitan Rio de Janeiro of its status as a capital and instead build a new one on a deserted plain in the interior of the backward state of central Brazil. However, the project had been planned since the establishment of the Republic in the Constitution of 1891, primarily to stimulate the colonization of inner Brazil. Based on Brasília, the country's loosely connected regions were subsequently better linked to the capital by the construction of an extensive road network.

Brazil's floor plan depicts a giant bow and arrow - or a jet. The bow and arrow symbol links the country's Native American past with modern Brazil. The strictly planned city plan divides the city into sectors for respectively. administration, commerce, housing and industry. Within a radius of 50 km from the city center (officially called Plano Piloto) are the satellite towns, and Plano Piloto differs sharply from them.

In the city center is the headquarters of all federal institutions in the country, the foreign embassies and the headquarters of many national and transnational industrial companies and banks. The living quarters with high-standard service facilities house the upper middle class officials, while the satellite towns are mainly sleeping villages for the workers and the lower officials in Plano Piloto. They are densely populated and have less developed infrastructure. Two of them, Guará and Taguatinga, have developed significant industry and trade. It is characteristic of the entire Distrito Federal that it is planned with motorism in mind. The building of a metro that includes was to connect the satellite towns with Plano Piloto, launched in 1992; the first lines, a total of 32 km, were inaugurated in 2001 after several delays.

Brazil's population is growing rapidly; the capital has a rich range of service facilities and educational offerings, among other things. University.

Constitution

In 1990, for the first time, Brazil elected a governor by direct election, and a parliament was set up that equates Brazil with the other Brazilian states.

The city plan

Brazil's town plan was drawn up by Lúcio Costa. The north-south axis comprises residential areas and the main artery, while the east-west axis consists of a course of public buildings, culminating in the east with the Square of the Three Powers. The architect Oscar Niemeyer, in an international, modernist language, has created a number of monumental buildings, each with their own distinctive, often sculptural form, which are effectively set against each other. Thus, the east-west axis is terminated by the tall, slender twin towers and the flat platform of the National Congress, crowned by both a dome and an inverted dome. Also the presidential palace, the university and the cathedral were designed by Oscar Niemeyer, while landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx has been responsible for park and garden landscaping.

 

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