Brazil. As expected, Jair Bolsonaro was elected new
president in the second round of the presidential election
on October 28, with just over 55% of the votes cast, against
just under 45% for competitor Fernando Haddad of the Labor
Party (PT). According to opinion polls, the most popular
candidate and former president Lula da Silva, in prison
following a conviction for corruption, were not allowed to
stand. He handed himself over to police in early April in
Countryaah.com, Bolsonaro, a former military officer, had made himself
known for a series of homophobic, sexist, racist and media
hostile statements as well as tributes to the military
dictatorship of 1964–85. The whole year was also
characterized by upset feelings from both sides, although
Bolsonaro muted the tone slightly the closer the election
day came. Most of his constituents, however, seemed to pay
more attention to his speech on combating corruption and
crime - two phenomena that haunted Brazil for many decades.
Bolsonaro's victory was explained not only by PT's failures
in these areas but also by a deteriorating economy. A series
of corruption scandals have also persecuted the party for
many years since Lula was elected president in 2002 and
lowered Haddad's credibility.
The election was preceded by a tumultuous and highly
polarized election campaign. Human rights activist Marielle
Franco was murdered in mid-March, and Bolsonaro himself was
stabbed during an election in early September. The election
also meant a marked right turn in Brazilian politics after
four consecutive presidential elections for PT. By contrast,
Bolsonaro's campaign message was little concrete and often
contradictory, which together with controversial statements
by his co-workers that he was forced to modify, made it
difficult for voters and analysts to really know what kind
of policy he will follow. Both Amnesty International, Human
Rights Watch and Greenpeace expressed concern that human
rights and environmental issues will be in danger.
At the same time as the presidential election, governor
elections were held, which together reflected both the
presidential and congressional elections. PT won four
governor posts in the Northeast but lost, among others, in
the populous state of Minas Gerais. Bolsonaro's own small
Social Liberal Party (PSL) won in three fairly peripheral
states, while the established parties Brazilian Social
Democratic Party (PSDB) and Brazilian Democratic Movement
(MDB) lost half of their governor posts. However, PSDB won
in the important São Paulo. In the Chamber of Deputies, PT
lost 13 seats but remains the largest party with 56 seats,
with the PSL just below with 52 seats. In the Senate, PT's
loss was even greater, from 13 to four seats, and thus has
as many as Bolsonaro's PSL. PSDB and MDB also declined in
Congress but are still major parties.
A catastrophic fire destroyed September 2 of Brazil's
200-year-old National Museum in Rio de Janeiro. Of the
museum's 20 million objects from ancient Egypt and Rome as
well as from Latin American origin civilizations, 90% were
destroyed. Strong criticism was directed at President Michel
Temer for cuts in the cultural budget that led to inadequate
maintenance of the building.
Brazil, the capital of Brazil, set in a sparsely populated savanna landscape
(cerrado) on the Goiano Highlands for approximately 1150 m altitude. Together with
eight satellite cities and a total of 2.79 million. eg (2013), Brazil has
constitutional special status as a federal district. This Distrito Federal
occupies an area of 5800 km2, which was taken from the state of
Goiás at the city's inauguration in 1960.
It attracted international attention when, in 1957, the Brazilian government
decided to deprive the dynamic metropolitan Rio de Janeiro of its status as a
capital and instead build a new one on a deserted plain in the interior of the
backward state of central Brazil. However, the project had been planned since
the establishment of the Republic in the Constitution of 1891, primarily to
stimulate the colonization of inner Brazil. Based on Brasília, the country's
loosely connected regions were subsequently better linked to the capital by the
construction of an extensive road network.
Brazil's floor plan depicts a giant bow and arrow - or a jet. The bow and
arrow symbol links the country's Native American past with modern Brazil. The
strictly planned city plan divides the city into sectors for respectively.
administration, commerce, housing and industry. Within a radius of 50 km from
the city center (officially called Plano Piloto) are the satellite towns, and
Plano Piloto differs sharply from them.
In the city center is the headquarters of all federal institutions in the
country, the foreign embassies and the headquarters of many national and
transnational industrial companies and banks. The living quarters with
high-standard service facilities house the upper middle class officials, while
the satellite towns are mainly sleeping villages for the workers and the lower
officials in Plano Piloto. They are densely populated and have less developed
infrastructure. Two of them, Guará and Taguatinga, have developed significant
industry and trade. It is characteristic of the entire Distrito Federal that it
is planned with motorism in mind. The building of a metro that includes was to
connect the satellite towns with Plano Piloto, launched in 1992; the first
lines, a total of 32 km, were inaugurated in 2001 after several delays.
Brazil's population is growing rapidly; the capital has a rich range of
service facilities and educational offerings, among other things. University.
In 1990, for the first time, Brazil elected a governor by direct election,
and a parliament was set up that equates Brazil with the other Brazilian states.
The city plan
Brazil's town plan was drawn up by Lúcio Costa. The north-south axis
comprises residential areas and the main artery, while the east-west axis
consists of a course of public buildings, culminating in the east with the
Square of the Three Powers. The architect Oscar Niemeyer, in an international,
modernist language, has created a number of monumental buildings, each with
their own distinctive, often sculptural form, which are effectively set against
each other. Thus, the east-west axis is terminated by the tall, slender twin
towers and the flat platform of the National Congress, crowned by both a dome
and an inverted dome. Also the presidential palace, the university and the
cathedral were designed by Oscar Niemeyer, while landscape architect Roberto
Burle Marx has been responsible for park and garden landscaping.