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Yearbook 2018

Ecuador. The political conflict between former President Rafael Correa (2007-17) and President Lenín Moreno, who belong to the same party and was Correa's vice president, escalated in several areas during the year. In April, Ecuador's National Audit Office submitted a report in which Correa was accused of neglecting the country's foreign debt. On July 1, the country's highest court also announced that Correa, along with three intelligence officials, will be brought to trial for planning the kidnapping of a political opponent in Colombia in 2012. Correa, who now lives with her family in Belgium, was called to court but acquitted don't say. The conflict took on an international dimension when the President of Venezuela, Nicolás Maduro, and President Evo Morales of Bolivia, who both sympathize with Correa, expressed his support for him. Like the opposition in Ecuador, they accused Moreno of political persecution and of joining the United States. Moreno responded with a decision that UNASUR, an international left-wing organization supported by Maduro, Morales and Correa, will be evicted from its headquarters north of the capital Quito. In September, President Moreno decided to dissolve the intelligence service created by Correa and replace it with a new organization.

2018 Ecuador

Already on February 4, Moreno won a major success against Correa, when an overwhelming majority of voters in a referendum said no to a Correa-backed constitutional change that would allow unlimited re-election of a sitting president. According to, another issue supported by the electorate was the abolition of the Fourth State Power Council for Citizens Participation and Social Control (CPCCS), which according to Moreno was politicized during Correa's time. As a consequence of the referendum result, Moreno appointed a new authority (CPCCS-T) with the task of clearing incompetent civil servants, that is, those who were appointed during Correa's time and who in most cases could be considered supporters of him. A first action by the CPCCS-T was to dismiss all judges in the Constitutional Court. Correa accused Moreno of threatening the rule of law in the country, while CPCCS-T pointed out technical irregularities in the appointment of the judges. In addition, most members were dismissed by the electoral court.

The February referendum also strengthened the rights of indigenous peoples to oil companies in the Amazon of eastern Ecuador, especially in the Yasuní region.

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