Portugal. Things are going better for Portugal and in
October the country received a higher credit rating from the
credit rating agency Moody's, which no longer considers
loans to Portugal to be at a "rubbish level", which has been
the assessment since 2011. The rating agencies S&P Global
and Fitch agree. They have already raised the country's
credit rating from "rubbish status" to "investment level".
It is now projected that Portugal's debt as a proportion of
GDP will fall to 116% in 2021. This should be compared with
the 2017 debt ratio of almost 125% of GDP. The growth
potential is up 1.5%, from an average of 0.3% in 2010-17.
And the yield on 10-year government bonds is down 2.02%,
compared with peak levels of over 16% during the euro crisis
in 2012. Last year, the net budget deficit was just below
the EU-approved threshold of -3.0%.
Countryaah.com, Swedish Finance Minister Magdalena Andersson announced in
the autumn that Swedish pensioners residing in Portugal
should no longer be able to deduct their occupational
pension tax-free. This after Portugal agreed to renegotiate
the so-called double taxation agreement from 2002 with
Sweden. When this happens is not yet clear. In Finland,
where you have had the same problem, you took the hard
gloves and presented a new agreement approved by the Riksdag
and the President in December 2016. But as this has not yet
been tabled in the Portuguese Parliament, Finland plans to
terminate its tax treaty with landed in January 2019.
The heat and fires hit Portugal this year as well. At the
beginning of August, 47 degrees of heat was noted (the
European heat record of 48 degrees was set in Athens in
1977), and the heat led to several forest fires that went
well into the fall. In the Algarve tourist region in
southern Portugal, the city of Monchique was surrounded in
August by a forest and land fire. Hundreds of firefighters
fought the fire, which covered 15,000 acres. In October, the
Sintra-Cascais National Park, just over 3 km west of the
capital Lisbon, was hit by a forest fire where over 750
firefighters were deployed. In the long term, to overcome
the many fires, a pilot project was started in October where
370 goats would feast on under vegetation and make the
landscape less fire sensitive.
From 2024 it will be banned from wild animals at the
circus in Portugal. Parliament decided this at the end of
October. Over 40 species are covered by the ban, which
includes lions, tigers, camels and zebras. In addition, the
circus artists who leave their animals are promised support
for changing jobs. The issue has been driven by the Animal
and Nature Party (PAN), which entered parliament in 2015.
Portugal - Lisbon
Lisbon, Portuguese Lisboa, capital of Portugal; 552,700 residents
(2011), with suburbs 1. 9 million. Lisbon, located at Tejo estuary Mar da Palha,
is a major port and trade city. The city is Portugal's economic and cultural
center with five universities, a technical college, agricultural college,
business college, marine biology institute, art academy and a number of museums
and theaters such as the São Carlos Theater and Dona Maria II 's National
Theater. The city was the European Capital of Culture in 1994 and hosts the
World Exhibition in 1998.
Port and maritime operations play a major role in the Lisbon economy. Most of
Portugal's foreign trade goes through the city. One of the country's most
important industrial areas has been developed south of Tejo in the suburbs of
Almada, Barreiro and Seixal. Here are iron and steel mills, shipyards, cement
industry, etc. Lisbon's diverse industry further includes oil refinery and
chemical industry as well as the food, textile, glass and machine industries and
electronic industry. Extensive tourism also plays an important role in the
Public transport within the city is by bus, tram and metro. Because of the
height differences there are also lifts, of which Santa Justa lift, designed by
Gustave Eiffel, is the most famous. Traffic over Tejo goes by ferries or via the
April 25 bridge, one of Europe's longest suspension bridges, and the Vasco da
Gama bridge (inaugurated in 1998). The international airport is 6 km north of
Lisbon has been built on the slopes of a number of hills and is surrounded by
a belt with green areas and parks. To the east lies Lisbon's oldest district,
Alfama, with winding maze streets beneath the medieval Moorish castle of Castelo
de São Jorge. The cathedral, Sé Patriarcal (commenced in 1147), has been damaged
by several earthquakes and was largely rebuilt after 1755. The Renaissance
church of São Vicente de Fora was begun in the 1590s following designs by Il
Gesů in Rome. Other buildings include the Baroque church Igreja Conceição Velha
(newly built after 1755) and the remains of the palace Casa dos Bicos (1522).
To the west lies the Belém district with the grand monastery of Mosteiro dos
Jerónimos (c. 1502–72), erected in the Emanuel style, as well as the Torre de
Belém fortress tower (1515–21).
After the 1755 earthquake that devastated 2/3 of Lisbon, Baixa, a new central
district with regular street networks, large dry spaces and a new formal
entrance to the city, was created by Eugénio dos Santos de Carvalho. From the
Praça do Comércio square, surrounded by town halls, customs offices and
ministries in low symmetrical buildings with long arcades and a wide marble
staircase towards the river Tejo, via a triumphal arch leads a straight avenue,
Rua Augusta, through the square blocks to the traffic junction Rossio (Praça Dom
Pedro IV), adorned with two fountains and black-and-white mosaic coating. After
1890 new avenues with Avenida da Liberdade were continued north from the central
station and the Praça dos Restauradores square. An industrial zone and a number
of satellite cities have been developed on the southern side of Tejo. In a
devastating fire in 1988, central business districts in the so-called Chiado
area were destroyed.
Lisbon was originally an Iberian city, Olisipo. It was fortified by
the Romans as the base of operations in the Lusitanian war in 138 BC. and became
a municipality about 45 BC under the name Felicitas Iulia.
Remains of a Roman theater and terms have been found around Castelo de São
Jorge. From the mid-300s AD Lisbon was an important bishop's seat.
In the 400s AD Lisbon was conquered in turn by alans, gliders and visigotes,
and in the 710s by Arabs. In 1147, Alfons I, together with the Crusaders,
entered the city, and Lisbon became part of Portugal, from 1256 the country's
capital. In the 1400s and 1500s, it was one of Europe's richest cities as a
result of trade with Western Europe and foreign continents. In the second half
of the 16th century, however, the city's wealth declined. On November 1, 1755,
Lisbon suffered a catastrophic earthquake: large parts of the city were
destroyed and some 70,000 people died. However, Lisbon was rebuilt under the
impending awning of Pombal's leadership. In the 19th century, the population
doubled, avenues were created and the port modernized.