Sudan. According to
Countryaah.com, Sudan struggled with a continuing economic crisis
in 2018. The country's currency fell 85% against the US
dollar and inflation was close to 70% in September.
The ruling National Congress Party (NCP) nominated
President Omar al-Bashir as its presidential candidate in
the same month in 2020, despite the fact that the
Constitution only allows two terms of office. al-Bashir was
re-elected in 2015. Just before the NCP congress, the
government was reformed. Moutaz Moussa was named new prime
minister and also got the post of finance minister. In
October, the Sudanese pound was devalued and fell closer to
the black market. Moussa talked about releasing the exchange
rate. Among other things, it has recommended the
International Monetary Fund.
Sudan's hopes of being removed from a list of countries
that the United States believes are devoted to
state-sponsored terrorism rose at the end of the year. The
US Foreign Ministry announced that Khartoum was cooperating.
A decision is required for Sudan to be able to raise
international loans again.
At the beginning of the year, security forces turned down
protests in, among other things, Khartoum aimed at sharply
increased bread prices since government subsidies on flour
declined. The protests flared up again around December 19.
Claims were also made that al-Bashir would resign. For five
days, 37 people were killed in various cities according to
the human rights group Amnesty International. The government
stated that 19 were killed. The UN and the EU called for
The government announced in May that Sudan lacked fuel
reserves. Saudi Arabia later promised to sell oil at a
bargain price for five years. The Minister of Oil will be
replaced in April. Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour was
also allowed to go. One reason is believed to have been that
Ghandour talked about how wages for diplomats and embassy
rents lagged for months.
Sudan tried to drive the peace process in neighboring
South Sudan and in June signed an agreement to monitor oil
facilities in northern South Sudan. Sudan receives important
revenue through transit fees on South Sudan's oil exports.
In July, the government extended a unilateral ceasefire
in the Blue Nile and South Kurdufan provinces and said it
was willing to allow relief. The split was within the rebel
movement SPLM-North (Sudanese people's liberation movement).
In July, the UN Security Council decided to halve its
peacekeeping operation in Darfur. The UNAMID joint force
established by the UN and the African Union (AU) would be
reduced to around 4,000 soldiers in June 2019. Violence has
generally subsided in Darfur, but just over 2 million people
are still on the run.
The wars in Darfur and South Sudan
While there was peace in 2005 as a result of a negotiated
agreement in South Sudan, the war in Darfur broke out in
2003. As a result of these two wars, Sudan has the largest
number of internally displaced persons in the world, approx.
4–6 million in 2008, in addition to over half a million
refugees in neighboring countries, most from Darfur to Chad.
The largest proportion of internally displaced people have
fled from the war in South Sudan, while the figure from
Darfur was estimated at around 2 million. In 2008, more than
1 million had returned to their homes in the south following
the peace peace in 2005.
The war in South Sudan is estimated to have cost about 2
million lives; in Darfur approx. 300,000 (2008). 50,000 to
100,000 were also displaced as a result of fighting between
forces from the Sudanese and South Sudanese armed forces in
the city of Abyei in central Sudan in May 2008 - a result of
continued disagreement between governments in the south and
north about where the border should go.
Abyei is located in the state of South Kordofan, between
North and South Sudan and on the border with Darfur, in an
area with significant oil deposits. The state, created as a
result of the peace agreement in 2005, is ethnically and
religiously complex - with the Nuba -People as the largest,
and threatened by further conflict.
President Bashir and South Sudan President Salva Kiir
agreed to allow the border issue to go to international
arbitration. Norway contributed to the agreement that barred
the conflict over Abyei. The border dispute in 2007 was a
major reason why the SPLM withdrew from the Sudanese
government for a time, creating fears that the 2005 peace
agreement would end. Like the Abyei region, the disputed
Nuba Mountains were included in South Kordofan as a result
of the 2005 peace agreement. monitored with international
assistance, including from Norway. As a result of the 2005
peace agreement, solutions for power distribution between
NIC and SPLM were entered into in several disputed areas,
including The Blue Nile and Nuba.
Al-Bashir is charged with war crimes
In 2008, President al-Bashir was charged by the
International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague, for war
crimes and crimes against humanity, linked to his
responsibility for abuses against the civilian population
during the war in Darfur. Arrest warrant was issued in March
In 2010, the charge was expanded to include genocide. The
Sudanese government condemned the charges and refused to
extradite the president, inter alia by expelling Darfur
international aid organizations. In April 2010, Bashir was
re-elected as president, in the first elections with several
candidates since 1986. At the same time, it was pointed out
that political freedom was further squashed in Sudan,
including arrests of oppositionists, and that more power was
centralized around Bashir.
Despite several peace processes and ceasefires,
especially for South Sudan, armed conflicts continued in
several parts of the country, especially in Darfur, but also
in the provinces of the Blue Nile and South Kordofan, as
well as in the border area of Abyei. Clashes between
government forces and militia also took place in the east of