Azerbaijan 2018

In 2018, Azerbaijan had a population of approximately 10 million people. The economy is largely based on oil and gas production, agriculture and industry. Azeri is the official language although other languages such as Russian and Turkish are also spoken. According to extrareference, Azerbaijan is a unitary constitutional republic with an executive branch headed by the President who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The legislative branch consists of a unicameral parliament (the National Assembly). In terms of foreign relations, Azerbaijan maintains diplomatic ties with over 100 countries around the world and has close ties with its neighbors in the Caucasus region such as Georgia and Armenia. The government also works closely with international organizations such as the United Nations, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Trade Organization (WTO) and Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).

Yearbook 2018

Azerbaijan. In January, a leading opposition politician, Gözel Bayramli, was sentenced to three years in prison for currency smuggling. According to Bayramli, someone had invested thousands of dollars in her luggage. According to, Baku is the capital city of Azerbaijan, a country located in Western Asia. Journalist Afgan Mukhtarli was sentenced to six years in prison on charges of smuggling, among other things. He had reported suspected corruption in the circle of President Ilham Aliyev.

Azerbaijan Baku Tourist Attractions 2

In February, it was announced that the presidential election would be scheduled from October to April. A constitutional amendment allowed Aliyev to run for re-election for a fourth term. The opposition protested that the electoral movement was suddenly shortened, and two parties boycotted the election which they considered to be settled. Before the election, the opposition in the capital Baku demonstrated, demanded the release of political prisoners, called for free elections and anti-corruption measures.

The election was won by Ilham Aliyev with 86% of the vote, according to official data, since the regime has in practice silenced all opponents. According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), voters were given no real choice. Accusations of electoral fraud were rejected by the Election Commission.

After the presidential election, Parliament appointed a new prime minister, Novruz Mamedov, former adviser to President Aliyev.

In May, the President opened the first stage of 350 kilometers of gas pipelines to the EU via Turkey. The so-called southern gas corridor is intended to make Azerbaijan’s export westward independent of pipelines through the Russian Federation. Critics say the project enriches Aliyev’s circle and causes the West to close its eyes on the regime’s abuse of human rights.

In June, the Supreme Court upheld a ban on Radio Free Europe’s website and a two-year prison sentence against blogger Mehman Huseynov, who was sentenced for slander after his report of corruption in the regime.

During the summer, the regime intervened against a number of independent news sites through censorship and closure. In just over a year, more than 20 websites were blocked in the country.

In July, 14 people were sentenced to shorter prison sentences for online comments, including a nationwide power outage. The incident had been discussed on social media, where the government received harsh criticism.

According to a report by the Council of Europe, the Azerbaijani police are engaged in systematic torture with violence and corruption within the justice system. The prisons are overcrowded and have poor conditions. HRW called for zero tolerance against torture and prompt investigation of allegations of abuse. According to HRW, access to a lawyer is often denied, and complaints almost never lead to liability.

In August, an important agreement was signed on the legal status of the Caspian Sea between Azerbaijan, the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Iran. For the first time since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the coastal states agreed on how to regulate fishing water and the seabed.

Country data

Area: 86,600 km2 (world ranking: 111)

Population: 9,862,000

Population density: 114 per km2 (as of 2017, world ranking: 90)

Capital: Baki (Baku)

Official languages: Azerbaijani (Azeri)

Gross domestic product: 40.7 billion US $; Real growth: 0.1%

Gross national product (GNP, per resident and year): 4080 US$

Currency: Manat


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Head of State: Ilham Aliyev, Head of Government: Novruz Mämmädov, Exterior: Elmar Mämmädyarov

National Day: 28.5. (Republic Day 1918)

Administrative division
59 districts (rayons) and 11 prefecture-level cities; Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic; Nagorno-Karabakh and 7 surrounding districts occupied by Armenia

State and form of government
Constitution of 1995
Presidential Republic
Parliament: National Assembly (Milli Mäclis) with 125 members, election every 5 years
Direct election of the head of state every 7 years
Suffrage from 18 years of age

Population: Azerbaijanis, last census 2009: 8,922,447 residents.
91% Azerbaijanis, 2% Lesgians, 2% Russians, 2% Armenians, etc. Minorities

Cities (with population): Naxçivan (Nakhchivan) As of 2015: 77,400 residents.

Religions: 96% Muslims (65% Shiites, 35% Sunnis); Minorities of Christians and Jews (as of 2006)

Languages: Azerbaijani (Azeri); Minority languages: Lesgic, Armenian, Russian, Talish, Avar, Tatar, Ukrainian, Tsachurian, Georgian, Kurdish, German, Taty, Juhuri, Krysian, Udish, Chinalugic, Buduchian, Rutul Employed

By economic sector: agriculture. 37%, industry 14%, business 49% (2017)

Unemployment (in% of the labor force)
2017: 5.0%

Inflation rate (in%): 2017: 13.0%

Foreign trade: Import: 8.8 billion US $ (2017); Export: 13.8 billion US $ (2017)

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