Colombia Geography and Climate

In 2014, it was estimated that 47 million people lived in Colombia, making the country the third most populous in Latin America after Brazil and Mexico. It is also the third country in the order in terms of the number of Spanish speakers after Mexico and the United States. At the beginning of the 20th century, it is estimated that about 4 million people lived in Colombia and there are estimates that predict that the country by 2020 will have a population of about 50.9 million, so it can be said that the rate at which the population increases is fast. The country is located in the northwestern part of South America and has a coastline to the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Colombia borders the countries of Peru, Venezuela, Panama, Ecuador and Brazil. This is a country that is very rich in natural resources, and which is known for the coffee that is grown at high altitudes in the mountains. After Brazil, Colombia is the world’s largest coffee exporter.

At the same time as Colombia offers such a beautiful and varied nature, it is a country that is judged to have a very high risk of terrorist acts. In 2010, the country’s murder rate was measured to be the world’s fourth highest. During the 2000s, it has become safer in Colombia, but in 2010 the number of kidnappings increased and the big cities are surrounded by shantytowns where so-called internally displaced people and very poor people live.

Geography and climate

According to BRIDGAT, the climate in the country depends on what altitude you are at. To the west are the Andes, which in the north merge into other mountain ranges. In the Andes there are peaks that are always covered with snow and the highest peak is Cristóbal Colón which is located at an altitude of 5,775 meters. In the Andes, there are also several active volcanoes and it is not uncommon for earthquakes in Colombia. It can be said that there are six different types of geographical areas in the country. These are the Andes with mountain terrain, the coast to the Pacific Ocean, the coast to the Caribbean Sea, plains, the Amazon rainforest area, and island areas both in the Atlantic and in the Pacific Ocean.

The majority of the population lives on the plateaus surrounded by mountain ranges. Due to the fact that they have used too much medicine against insects and the air pollution that comes from cities, they have problems with the water quality in the country. In addition, forests in Colombia are felled in a problematic way that does not benefit the environment. There is still rainforest left and here you can find many unique animals such as the jaguar, the sloth and the spectacled bear.

The main rivers in Colombia are called Magdalena, Cauca, Guaviare, Atrato, Meta, Putumayo and Caquetá. The Orinoco River forms the border with Venezuela, while the Amazon River serves as the border with Peru.


If you look at Colombia’s natural resources, this is a very rich country. You grow a lot of different types of fruits and flowers as well as coffee. The country also has a well-developed oil industry that provides plenty of work and here is an industry that includes emeralds and gold. Colombia was long known as Eldorado, that is, the land of gold and it also mines platinum, nickel and emeralds.

Colombia Geography

You may also like...