Italy. Officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana in Italian). Country in Europe that is part of the European Union (EU). Its territory is mainly made up of the Italian Peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea: Sicily and Sardinia. The independent states of San Marino and Vatican City are enclaves within Italian territory. In turn, Campione d’Italia is an Italian commune that forms a small enclave in the territory of the Swiss Confederation.
According to PHYSICSCAT, the official language spoken by the vast majority is Italian, from the Indo-European Romance language family. There are also areas where German, French, Catalan, Croatian and Greek are spoken among others.
The dominant religion is the Roman Catholic religion, practiced by 84% of the population. Other religions are also professed to a lesser extent, such as Protestant, Muslim and Jewish.
The Italian population is formed in its great majority by descendants of the autochthonous settlers of the place.
Italy has an old educational tradition, cultivated since the time of the Empire. The current educational system was implemented since 1859, with a law that guarantees the possibility of complete instruction, from primary and elementary education, to university, this law was developed and improvements have been made in the 20th century.
From ancient times to modern times, Italy has always stood out for its cultural values. He has contributed to the cultural development of humanity in sculpture, architecture, painting, literature and in music, particularly opera. Although the Italians are still considered direct descendants of the ancient Roman architecture, the Roman sculpture, the Roman painting There are some influences, regionally from other nations such as Arabs, Greeks and other regions; These differences are seen particularly in the persistence of local dialects, celebrations, songs, and regional traditions.
Since 1980 a national health service was established that guarantees medical care to all Italian citizens. Life expectancy is estimated at about 80 years for women and 74 for men. Infant mortality is 7 per 1000 live births.
It is the spiritual center of the Catholic religion. Its historic center, where remains of almost three millennia are intermingled, has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Its historical importance is huge. Considered one of the cradles of Western civilization, it attracts millions of visitors every year, attracted by the ruins of its former splendor and its incalculable works of art.
The origin of the name Rome has been the subject of various theories. The word is of Latin origin, which is a language belonging to the Indo-European linguistic trunk. The word “Rome” resembles the word ” Romulus “, the legendary first king of the city. It also resembles that of his brother ” Remo ” killed by himself according to legend.
Evidently the name of Romulus is later than that of Rome, created, apparently, to explain the name of the city. Even so, this myth could have some historical support, being Romulus a unifying character of the peoples that formed Rome in its most remote past. However, apparently, the origin of the name of Rome would be more closely related to the ancient name of the Tiber River.
But there are other hypotheses: one of them refers to Rome being the daughter of Aeneas or Evandrus. Recent studies seem to give the word the meaning of ‘river’; Rome in this case would mean ‘the town on the river’, that is, on the Tiber river. Rome is also called the city, and this name (which in Latin would mean any other town) comes from urvus, the groove cut by a plow; in this case, the one used by Romulus.
In 1980, the historic center of Rome was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
In 1990, the assets of the Holy See located in the city that benefit from extraterritoriality rights were included in the declaration.
Rome is located in the central region of Italy, in the Lazio region and near the mouth of the Tiber River. The central core of the city is located 24 km from the Tyrrhenian Sea. The altitude of Rome is 13 meters above sea level (in Piazza del Popolo) from the lowest to 120 meters above sea level on Monte Mario. The commune of Rome has 1,285 km² of surface.
It has a typical Mediterranean climate that characterizes the coasts of Italy. The climate is comfortable from April to June and from mid-September to October, where the ottobrata (it can be translated as ‘beautiful October day’ in Spanish) is known for sunny and warm days. In August, the average temperature is 24.5 ° C, traditionally, many Roman businesses close during August, but not all leave the city since in that summer time is when most tourists arrive. Winter is cold and the average temperature in January is 8.5 ° C.