Peru 2018

Peru (Spanish República del Perú, officially Republic of Peru) is a state in western South America and borders in the north on Ecuador and Colombia, in the east on Brazil, in the southeast on Bolivia, in the south on Chile and in the west on the Pacific Ocean.

Yearbook 2018

Peru. The corruption scandals resolved each other during the year and in a referendum on December 9, an overwhelming majority of voters voted for three of four proposals submitted to resolve the issues. According to the approved proposals, congressmen will be prevented from direct re-election, the rules for financing election campaigns will be tightened and the Commission for Election of Judges will be reformed. According to, Lima is the capital city of Peru, a country located in South America. President Martín Vizcarra acknowledged that the referendum will not change everything but claimed that it was an important step in the right direction.

Peru Lima Tourist Attractions 2

It was mainly the Odebrecht scandal that was behind the initiative for the referendum. The Brazilian construction company Odebrecht is accused of having paid a total of $ 800 million to politicians and officials in recent years, which has led to four former presidents being investigated by prosecutors. At the end of March, President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski was forced to resign for the same reason, the day before Congress would have initiated a judicial process against him. His popularity figures were disastrously low as he also pardoned former President Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000) for the support of his son Kenji Fujimori ahead of the first congressional referendum in December.

Kuczynski was replaced at the presidential post by his Vice President Martín Vizcarra, who immediately declared that he would launch a crusade against corruption, leading to his popularity rising by 16% in just one month. Four months later, however, Justice Minister Salvador Heresi and a senior judge were forced to resign after audio recordings revealed their involvement in the Odebrecht scandal. Finally, in October, opposition leader Keiko Fujimori was sentenced to three years in house arrest for illegally receiving $ 1.2 million during the 2011 presidential campaign. In January, Pope Francis visited Peru and his question to the country’s bishops was the same as many Peruvians posed is it happening in Peru where every time a president leaves office he is put in jail? ”

The regional and municipal elections on October 7 confirmed the image of voters’ deep mistrust of the established parties. The big exception was the capital Lima, where the Public Action (AP) won the mayor post through Jorge Muñoz. Fujimori’s People’s Force (FP) made a disaster choice; the party lost all three of its previous regions and did not win in a single electoral district in Lima. In several regions, it was local political parties that won and made clear the great difference between national and local politics in Peru.

Country data

Area: 1,285,216 km2 (world ranking: 19)

Residents: 32,165,000

Population density: 25 per km2 (as of 2017, world ranking: 43)

Capital: Lima

Official languages: Spanish, Quechua, Aimará, 35 other regional languages

Gross domestic product: US $ 211.4 billion; Real growth: 2.5%

Gross national product (GNP, per resident and year): 5970 US $

Currency: 1 Neuer Sol (S /.) = 100 Céntimos


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Head of State and Government: Martín Vizcarra CornejoMercedes Aráoz Fernández, Head of Government: César Villanueva Arévalo, Outside: Néstor Francisco Popolizio Bardales

National Day: 28.7.

Administrative divisions
25 regions and 1 province

Form of Government
1993 Constitution
Parliament. Congress (Congreso) with 130 Members Rank, elections every 5 years
direct election of the head of state every 5 years (no immediate re-election)
elective 18-70 J.

Population: Peruvians, last census 2007: 27,412,157 residents
approx. 45% indigenous, 37% European indigenous, 15% of European descent; Minorities mainly of African, European-African, Asian descent

Cities (with population): (as of 2015) Lima (with Callao) 9,886,600 inh., Arequipa 869,400, Trujillo 799,600, Chiclayo 600,400, Iquitos 437,400, Piura 436,400, Cusco 427,200, Chimbote 371,000, Huancayo 364,700, Pucallpa 309,100, Pucallpa 309,100, Juliaca 273,900, Ica 244,400, Cajamarca 226,000

Religions: 81% Catholics, 13% Protestants (especially Evangelicals); indigenous religions; Minorities of Jews, Bahais, Muslims, etc. (as of 2006)

Languages: Spanish, 40% Quechua, 3-5% Aimará; 35 other indigenous languages

employed by
agricultural sector. 28%, industry 16%, business 56% (2017)

Unemployment (in% of all labor force): 2017: 3.6%

Inflation rate (in%): 2017: 2.8%

Foreign trade: import: 39.8 billion US $ (2017); Export: 44.2 billion US $ (2017)

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