Portugal. Things are going better for Portugal and in October the country received a higher credit rating from the credit rating agency Moody’s, which no longer considers loans to Portugal to be at a “rubbish level”, which has been the assessment since 2011. The rating agencies S&P Global and Fitch agree. They have already raised the country’s credit rating from “rubbish status” to “investment level”. It is now projected that Portugal’s debt as a proportion of GDP will fall to 116% in 2021. This should be compared with the 2017 debt ratio of almost 125% of GDP. The growth potential is up 1.5%, from an average of 0.3% in 2010-17. And the yield on 10-year government bonds is down 2.02%, compared with peak levels of over 16% during the euro crisis in 2012. Last year, the net budget deficit was just below the EU-approved threshold of -3.0%.
According to Countryaah.com, Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal, a country located in Southern Europe. Swedish Finance Minister Magdalena Andersson announced in the autumn that Swedish pensioners residing in Portugal should no longer be able to deduct their occupational pension tax-free. This after Portugal agreed to renegotiate the so-called double taxation agreement from 2002 with Sweden. When this happens is not yet clear. In Finland, where you have had the same problem, you took the hard gloves and presented a new agreement approved by the Riksdag and the President in December 2016. But as this has not yet been tabled in the Portuguese Parliament, Finland plans to terminate its tax treaty with landed in January 2019.
The heat and fires hit Portugal this year as well. At the beginning of August, 47 degrees of heat was noted (the European heat record of 48 degrees was set in Athens in 1977), and the heat led to several forest fires that went well into the fall. In the Algarve tourist region in southern Portugal, the city of Monchique was surrounded in August by a forest and land fire. Hundreds of firefighters fought the fire, which covered 15,000 acres. In October, the Sintra-Cascais National Park, just over 3 km west of the capital Lisbon, was hit by a forest fire where over 750 firefighters were deployed. In the long term, to overcome the many fires, a pilot project was started in October where 370 goats would feast on under vegetation and make the landscape less fire sensitive.
From 2024 it will be banned from wild animals at the circus in Portugal. Parliament decided this at the end of October. Over 40 species are covered by the ban, which includes lions, tigers, camels and zebras. In addition, the circus artists who leave their animals are promised support for changing jobs. The issue has been driven by the Animal and Nature Party (PAN), which entered parliament in 2015.
Portugal – Lisbon
Lisbon, Portuguese Lisboa, capital of Portugal; 552,700 residents (2011), with suburbs 1. 9 million. Lisbon, located at Tejo estuary Mar da Palha, is a major port and trade city. The city is Portugal’s economic and cultural center with five universities, a technical college, agricultural college, business college, marine biology institute, art academy and a number of museums and theaters such as the São Carlos Theater and Dona Maria II ‘s National Theater. The city was the European Capital of Culture in 1994 and hosts the World Exhibition in 1998.
Port and maritime operations play a major role in the Lisbon economy. Most of Portugal’s foreign trade goes through the city. One of the country’s most important industrial areas has been developed south of Tejo in the suburbs of Almada, Barreiro and Seixal. Here are iron and steel mills, shipyards, cement industry, etc. Lisbon’s diverse industry further includes oil refinery and chemical industry as well as the food, textile, glass and machine industries and electronic industry. Extensive tourism also plays an important role in the city’s business.
Public transport within the city is by bus, tram and metro. Because of the height differences there are also lifts, of which Santa Justa lift, designed by Gustave Eiffel, is the most famous. Traffic over Tejo goes by ferries or via the April 25 bridge, one of Europe’s longest suspension bridges, and the Vasco da Gama bridge (inaugurated in 1998). The international airport is 6 km north of the city.
Lisbon has been built on the slopes of a number of hills and is surrounded by a belt with green areas and parks. To the east lies Lisbon’s oldest district, Alfama, with winding maze streets beneath the medieval Moorish castle of Castelo de São Jorge. The cathedral, Sé Patriarcal (commenced in 1147), has been damaged by several earthquakes and was largely rebuilt after 1755. The Renaissance church of São Vicente de Fora was begun in the 1590s following designs by Il Gesù in Rome. Other buildings include the Baroque church Igreja Conceição Velha (newly built after 1755) and the remains of the palace Casa dos Bicos (1522).
To the west lies the Belém district with the grand monastery of Mosteiro dos Jerónimos (c. 1502–72), erected in the Emanuel style, as well as the Torre de Belém fortress tower (1515–21).
After the 1755 earthquake that devastated 2/3 of Lisbon, Baixa, a new central district with regular street networks, large dry spaces and a new formal entrance to the city, was created by Eugénio dos Santos de Carvalho. From the Praça do Comércio square, surrounded by town halls, customs offices and ministries in low symmetrical buildings with long arcades and a wide marble staircase towards the river Tejo, via a triumphal arch leads a straight avenue, Rua Augusta, through the square blocks to the traffic junction Rossio (Praça Dom Pedro IV), adorned with two fountains and black-and-white mosaic coating. After 1890 new avenues with Avenida da Liberdade were continued north from the central station and the Praça dos Restauradores square. An industrial zone and a number of satellite cities have been developed on the southern side of Tejo. In a devastating fire in 1988, central business districts in the so-called Chiado area were destroyed.
Lisbon was originally an Iberian city, Olisipo. It was fortified by the Romans as the base of operations in the Lusitanian war in 138 BC. and became a municipality about 45 BC under the name Felicitas Iulia. Remains of a Roman theater and terms have been found around Castelo de São Jorge. From the mid-300s AD Lisbon was an important bishop’s seat.
In the 400s AD Lisbon was conquered in turn by alans, gliders and visigotes, and in the 710s by Arabs. In 1147, Alfons I, together with the Crusaders, entered the city, and Lisbon became part of Portugal, from 1256 the country’s capital. In the 1400s and 1500s, it was one of Europe’s richest cities as a result of trade with Western Europe and foreign continents. In the second half of the 16th century, however, the city’s wealth declined. On November 1, 1755, Lisbon suffered a catastrophic earthquake: large parts of the city were destroyed and some 70,000 people died. However, Lisbon was rebuilt under the impending awning of Pombal’s leadership. In the 19th century, the population doubled, avenues were created and the port modernized.