Romanian literature in the seventies took two opposite directions: on the one hand the writers who, out of opportunism or conviction, followed the political directives of N. Ceauşescu, the so-called ” theses ” of July 1971; on the other, the majority, committed to defending their artistic autonomy. In the following decade the contrast became increasingly harsh and radical. If the names of D. Deşliu (1927-1991), P. Goma (b.1936), A. Blandiana (b.1942), M. Dinescu (b.1950), and others, represented the aspirations of Romanians freedom, there was no lack of those who collaborated with the regime: among these the best known are the poet A. Păunescu (b.1943) and the older E. Barbu (1924-1993), author of short stories and novels, accused of plagiarism for Incognito, 1 (1975), with great scandal in the literary world. An official position held by DR Popescu (b.1935), although a valid narrator and playwright, president of the Writers’ Union until the 1989 revolution.
In the dark years, the spirit of independence of the magazine România Literară (Bucharest), directed by the critic G. Ivaşcu (1911-1988), stood out, with whom he operated a group of young critics, among whom is N. Manolescu (b. 1939); and prominent writers have established themselves: Romania Cosaşu (b. 1930), Romania Rusan (b. 1935), G. Dimisianu (b. 1936), D. Dumitriu (1943-1987), A. Bittel (b. 1946). In particular, N. Stănescu emerged among the poets (see in this Appendix). But others also deserve to be remembered: M. Sorescu (b. 1936), author of an ironic and harsh protest poem: Singur parmi poeţi (“Solo tra i poeti”, 1963), La Lilieci (“A Lilieci”, 1973), Clouds (“Le nuvole”, 1975), Descîntoteca (“The shop of exorcisms”, 1976); while a profound, mystical, tragic poem, a mythology of death and love is that of I. Mălăncioiu (b. 1940): Inima reginei (“The heart of the queen”, 1971), Poezii (“Poesie”, 1973), Ardere de tot (“Holocaust”, 1976), Peste zona interzisă (“On the forbidden zone”, 1979). The aforementioned Blandiana has given life to a metaphorical, sensual and at times naive poem: Persoana intîi plural (“First person plural”, 1964), Călcîiul vulnerabil (“The vulnerable heel”, 1966), Cincizeci de poeme (“Fifty poems”, 1970), Poezii (“(“Sleep from sleep”, 1977). Also worth mentioning is V. Mazilescu (1942-1984), exponent of the ” dreamlike ” group, contradictory and contestant poet, author among other things of Fragmente din regiunea din odinoară (“Fragments of the region of other times”, 1970), Va fi liniçste de seară (“There will be peace in the evening”, 1979) and above all Guillaume şi Administratorul (“Guillaume and the Administrator”, 1981).
In these same years they continue their activity poets already known as J. Caraion (see in this Appendix) and others: G. Dumitrescu (b. 1920), St.A. Doinaş (b. 1922), N. Cassian (b. 1924), M. Ivănescu (b. 1931), E. Brumaru (b. 1939), C. Baltag (b. 1939), G. Naum (b. 1915)), V. Nicolescu (1929-1987), I. Alexandru (b. 1941), C. Buzea (b. 1941), F. Albu (b. 1934). On the other hand, the above – mentioned M. Dinescu, the enfant prodige, became the voice of his oppressed people (Invocaçtie nimănui, “Invocation to no one”, 1971; Proprietarul de poduri, “The master of the bridges”, 1976).
Equally rich has been the narrative production. In front of the party’s faithful – Barbu but also I. Lăncrănjan (1928-1991) and T. Popovici (b. 1930) – C. Toiu (b. 1923), F. Neagu (n. 1932), A. Ivasiuc (1933-1977), N. Breban (b. 1934); bravely challenging is the prose of A. Buzura (b. 1938), author of Feçtele tăcerii (“The Faces of Silence”, 1974); and the dignified testimony of G. Bozga (1908-1993) does not escape. Among the prose writers of the last decades, in addition to the major M. Preda (see in this Appendix) and S. Bănulescu (b. 1929), it should be mentioned M.-H. Simionescu (b. 1928). Romania Petrescu (1927-1982) and S. Titel (1935-1987) air the modes of the Nouveau roman ; while T. Mazilu (1930-1980), I. Băieşu (1933-1993) and the aforementioned Cosaşu, after a phase of ideological conformity, arrive at irony and humor. Some of these are also theater writers; but among the best-known playwrights of the decade 1970-80 we should mention above all M. Sorescu, H. Lovinescu (1917-1987) and the well-known P. Everac (b. 1924).
After 1980, political pressure became even heavier. With a few exceptions, writers have not failed to claim their autonomy. At the Faculty of Arts of the University of Bucharest – around the critics N. Manolescu, M. Martin (b. 1940) and Ov.S. Crohmalniceanu (b.1921) – the group of Optzecişti was formed, that is of the generation of the Eighties, the poets ” in blue jeans ” (among which: TT Coşovei, b.1954; F. Iaru, n. 1954; A. Muşina, b. 1954; I. Stratan, b. 1955; M. Cărtărescu, b. 1956; M. Marin, b. 1956; IB Lefter, b. 1957; B. Ghiu, b. 1958), authors of also collective works such as Aer cu diamante (“Aria with diamonds”, 1982) and Cinci (“Cinque”, 1983). To a second group, similarly, Desant (“Launch”, 1985): again a collective work of writer-witnesses, who with the freedom of poetry exalted its function of “voice” and “cry” of truth. Alongside them we should mention: S. Mărculescu (b. 1936), M. Ursachi (b. 1941), LI Stoiciu (b. 1950), D. Comănescu (b. 1954).
Young prose writers have sometimes experienced a complex metanarrative writing, ” textualism ”; M. Nedelciu (b. 1950) is the best known representative of this (Zmeure de cîmpie, “More di pianura”, 1984; Tratament fabulatoriu, ” Trattamento affabulatore “, 1986), but it is also worth mentioning B. Horasangian (b. 1945).), author of Sala de açsteptare (” Waiting Room”), and S. Agopian (b. 1947) author of Manualul accidental (“Il manuale degli accadimenti”, 1984), and at least the names should be made of S. Tănase (b. 1952) and G. Adameşteanu (b. 1942).
In the meantime, the conditions for the protest against the regime have been created. Already in 1977 Goma had promoted a movement in support of Carta ’77 ; it was joined by I. Negoiçtescu (1921-1992), literary critic and historian, and I. Vianu (b. 1934). But the protest spread especially in the 1980s. The regime was ridiculed in the poems of M. Dinescu (Haplea, “L’ingordo”) and in an ” open letter ” by Deşliu; while Blandiana and I. Mălăncioiu reflected the miserable reality of Romania in their poems of denunciation. Despite the violent repressions, others have joined: from the aforementioned Bozga and Doinas to O. Paler (b. 1926), P. Creçtia (b. 1927), D. Hăulica (b. 1932), A. Pleşu (b. 1949), A. Paleologu (b.1919). The anti-communist revolution, in December 1989, saw the intellectuals in the front row; and literature did not take long to take new paths. In magazines and newspapers, as well as in books, the request for a radical change has been made categorically. The declared apoliticality of the critic E. Simion (b.1933) and of the magazine Literatorul has oriented itself against the widespread civil commitment., founded by M. Sorescu and F. Neagu and open to the writers of the old regime. Important in this context was the action taken in the direction of renewal by România Literară, under the direction of Manolescu, with the collaboration among others of Z. Ornea (b. 1930), A. George (b. 1930), A. Stefănescu (b. 1947); while in the field of lively literary criticism the names of A. Piru (1917-1993), M. Zaciu (b. 1928), C. Regman (b. 1919), G. Grigurcu (b. 1936), P. Cornea (b. 1924), A. Marino (b. 1921), M. Zamfir (b. 1939) and M. Papahagi (b. 1947).
In the meantime, with the collapse of the regime, the recovery and diffusion of the works of the exiles began in Romania and among these, the most famous: from M. Eliade to E. Cioran and E. Ionesco; while V. Ierunca (b. 1920) and M. Lovinescu (b. 1923) return home, spokesmen abroad (through the radio broadcasts of Free Europe) of the anti-communist culture. Goma’s works have finally been published (Din Calidor, “Dal Calidor”, 1990; Patimile după Piteşti, “Suffering according to Pitesti”, 1991; Gherla, 1991; Ostinato, 1991, etc.); and those of V. Horia (Mai bine mort decît comunist, “Better dead than communist”, 1990; Dumnezeu sa născut in exil, “God Was Born in Exile,” 1991; Goncourt Prize in 1962); next to them are published the writings of S. Baciu (1918-1992) and IP Culianu (1950-1991). Although they remained in the West, Fr. Dumitriu (b. 1924), B. they have also seen their books published in Romania.
The phenomenon of memorial literature is noteworthy. The Romanian culture has known, in particular, the dramatic testimonies of the survivors of the gulags (T. Mihadaş, I. Ioanid, N. Mărgineanu, Romania Radina, C. Ioniçtoiu, A. State, B. Silber, I. Orlea, A. Georgescu). On another front, in the philosophical-literary production, where the imprint of L. Blaga is still effective (see App. I, p. 284), we note the contribution of C. Noica (1909-1987), one of the major Romanian thinkers (translated also in Italy: Seven diseases of the spirit, 1994; Pray for the brother Alessandro, 1994). In the same context, between literature and philosophy, move P. ÇTuçtea (1902-1993) and N. Steinhardt (1912-1989), the latter writer of strong religious convictions (Jurnalul fericirii, “The diary of happiness”, 1990), which became known especially after the revolution.