Russia Political Systems and Social Conditions
Russia’s independence came about as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The fall of the Soviet Union was a result of both internal and external pressures on the government. Internally, Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) had led to a weakening of central control over the constituent republics, allowing them to increasingly assert their own national identities. Externally, the Cold War had come to an end with the fall of communism in Eastern Europe and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. This weakened Soviet power and allowed for greater autonomy from its former satellite states.
The independence movement in Russia gained momentum throughout 1991, culminating in a referendum held in March 1991 which asked Russians if they wanted to remain as part of a reformed Soviet Union or become an independent state. The results overwhelmingly favored independence, with 76% voting for it. On August 24th, 1991, Russian President Boris Yeltsin declared Russia’s independence from the Soviet Union and declared himself president of Russia. This declaration was followed by declarations from other republics within the former Soviet Union that they too were now independent states. The dissolution of the USSR was officially completed on December 25th, 1991 when President Yeltsin signed an agreement with Belarus and Ukraine declaring that all three countries were now independent states.
Political Systems in Russia
According to thesciencetutor.org, Russia is a federal semi-presidential republic with a multi-party system. The President of the Russian Federation is the head of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is vested in the government, and legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The political system of Russia has evolved over time from an absolute monarchy to a federal presidential republic.
The Constitution of Russia defines it as a democratic, federal, and social state with separation of powers among its branches – legislative, executive and judicial. The Constitution states that Russia shall be governed by law and justice for all citizens regardless of their social or economic status. The Russian Federation has three branches of power: legislative, executive, and judicial. The Federal Assembly consists of two chambers: the State Duma (lower house) and the Federation Council (upper house). It also has an independent judiciary with a Constitutional Court responsible for interpreting laws in accordance with the constitution.
The President serves as both head-of-state and head-of-government while exercising executive authority through his cabinet members known as ministers. The President appoints members to his cabinet subject to confirmation by parliament through voting procedure known as “investiture vote”. In addition to this elected president also appoints prime minister who heads the government’s cabinet members known as ministers with approval from parliament. Furthermore, president can dissolve parliament if it fails to pass legislation or pass budget if two successive parliaments cannot agree on one within three months after elections are held or if it fails twice within one year after being elected for first time or reelected for second time respectively thus enabling him to rule by decree for six months until new elections are held thus making him powerful figure in Russian politics .
Judiciary System in Russia
According to topb2bwebsites.com, the judiciary system in Russia is based on the principles of civil law, which means that laws must be strictly adhered to and interpreted literally. The Constitution of the Russian Federation guarantees citizens the right to a fair trial and independent judges. The judicial power is vested in courts of general jurisdiction, arbitration courts, and Constitutional Court. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is the highest court in the country and it oversees all other courts. It hears appeals from lower courts and reviews their decisions for accuracy. Lower-level courts are divided into federal, regional, and local levels. All cases are heard by a panel of three judges who make a decision based on legal precedent as well as individual circumstances. Judges have considerable independence from other branches of government when deciding cases, but they can be removed from office if found guilty of misconduct or incompetence.
The Constitutional Court is responsible for interpreting constitutional law as well as settling disputes between different branches of government or between individuals and the state. It has 15 members appointed by the President with approval from both Houses of Parliament. Its decisions are binding on all other branches of government and cannot be appealed or overturned except by constitutional amendment. This court also reviews laws passed by Parliament to ensure that they comply with constitutional provisions before they become effective.
Russia also has an extensive system of arbitration tribunals which handle commercial disputes between businesses or between businesses and individuals without involving any formal court proceedings or judges. These tribunals are often quicker than regular court proceedings since they do not involve all the same formalities that accompany a lawsuit in an ordinary court setting. Arbitration tribunals also tend to be less expensive than going through a traditional court system since there are no filing fees or attorneys’ fees involved in bringing a case before them.
Social Conditions in Russia
In the early 1900s, Russia was a highly stratified society. The tsar and his court were at the top, followed by the nobility, then the middle class. Below them were the peasants and serfs, who made up the majority of the population. They had no rights and were essentially enslaved to their masters. They lived in poverty, often working long hours for little pay and barely having enough to feed their families. Education was reserved for those of higher social classes and most peasants were illiterate. Women had even fewer rights than men and were not allowed to vote or own property until 1917.
The industrialization of Russia in the late 1800s led to an increase in poverty as factories took over farmland and put many people out of work. This caused a rise in homelessness and an influx of Russians into large cities such as Moscow and St Petersburg. Living conditions in these cities were often squalid with overcrowded housing, inadequate sanitation, polluted air, high rates of crime, and a lack of access to healthcare services. Social unrest became more common throughout Russia during this time as people grew increasingly frustrated with their living conditions. The Russian Revolution of 1917 brought about some changes but it would take decades before living conditions improved significantly for many Russians.