Colombia. According to Countryaah.com, Bogota is the capital city of Colombia, a country located in South America. 42-year-old Iván Duque was elected in the second round of the presidential election June 17 as Colombia’s youngest president to date and installed in his office August 7. He also became the first from the right-wing Democratic Center (CD) to hold the presidential office. The victory margin against opponent Gustavo Petro from the left-wing coalition Human Colombia was convincing – 54% – and turnout – 53% – record high for being Colombia. Duque won a majority of the vote in three quarters of the country’s provinces and in 19 provincial capitals, including the country’s second largest city of Medellín. At the same time, it was noted that Petro received more votes than any other left candidate in the country’s history and that he won in four of the country’s largest cities, including the capital Bogotá.
The big winner in the congressional elections held March 11 was the center-right party Radical Change (CR), which almost doubled the number of seats in both chambers and became the second largest party in the Senate. The success seemed to point to the success of party leader Germán Vargas Lleras in the first round of the presidential election on May 27, but they failed to do so. In addition, the party lacked its own majority in Congress. Gustavo Petro’s new left coalition managed to win four seats in the Senate and two in the House of Representatives. Alternative General Revolutionary Force (FARC) – the former guerrilla movement’s civilian party – won no seats on its own, but only got the total ten seats guaranteed to them through the 2016 peace treaty.
Some successes were noted in the fight against the still active paramilitary groups. In early August, Carlos Antonio “Nicolás” Moreno Tuberquia, a second man in the Gulf Clan, operating in the northern province of Antioquia, was arrested. In recent years, several of the group’s top names have been killed or captured. Peace talks with the last left guerrilla ELN (National Liberation Army) went slower and resumed in Ecuador in mid-March after a long hiatus, but with little optimism. Armed attacks in July by unknown perpetrators but attributed to ELN did not make the mood better.
A referendum on seven proposals for anti-corruption measures was a surprising failure. By a marginal margin, the limit on the number of votes required to approve the result was lower (one third of those eligible), and the proposals fell.
In 2009, Colombia and the United States signed an agreement that allowed the United States to use 7 military bases in Colombia. Officially, the purpose is to combat drug trafficking from Colombia to the United States, and the bases were supposed to replace the base in Manta, Equador, which Equador had closed two years earlier. However, a number of analysts pointed out that none of the 7 bases are located on the Pacific Ocean, where Manta had otherwise had an important role in escaping drug flights. Three of the new bases, on the other hand, were on Colombia’s Caribbean coast near the Venezuela border. The location and equipment of the bases indicate that they should not be used to intercept drug shipments, but should be used to intimidate Venezuela and other countries in the area. After the rest of the countries of South America itself become democratic, Colombia is the United States’ only bridgehead and military dictatorship in the region, and it must therefore be used for intimidation. Venezuela, Equador and Brazil immediately protested against the US military build-up in the region.
UN Special Rapporteur on extra-judicial executions visit time in June Colombia. He subsequently reported that: “essential parts of the military systematically carry out summary executions”. The impunity for abuses against the civilian population remains dominant, but the government decided to prosecute some in order to soften the harsh criticism of the rest of the world. In November, therefore, retired General Jaime Uscateguí was sentenced to 40 years in prison for his participation in the Mapiripán massacre in 1997.
In September 2009, the government announced that it would dissolve the civilian intelligence service DAS (Departamento Administrativo de Seguridad). It happened after revealing the creature for at least 7 years illegally had intercepted human rights lawyers, journalists, opposition politicians and judges and had passed the information on to the death patrols. The DAS was directly under the Colombian president. In May, former DAS director Jorge Noguera had been indicted for murder and membership in the death patrols.
On November 1, the 7-year exception expired by Colombia’s ratification of the ICC Statute for the Prosecution of War Crimes. The ICC can therefore begin to deal with the war crimes committed in the country.
In the slums, an increasing number of people are being wound up by death patrols. There are predominantly young, homeless, petty criminals, drug addicts, gays, lesbians, whores and transsexuals. The number of liquidations of these increased from 82 in 2008 to 184 in 2009.
According to Amnesty International, in 2009, 286,000 Colombians were displaced as a result of the armed conflict. The government declined to implement a compensation law that would provide for displaced compensation. 39 trade unionists and 8 human rights activists were wounded by death patrols. The government continued its claims that the human rights organizations went on the guerrilla mission.
Uribe continued to work on changing the country’s constitution so that he can run for a third term in the 2010 presidential election.