Europe has a temperate climate with typical maritime character in the west, but rising continental to the east. A very small area in the southeast has steep climates, some larger areas in the mountains and furthest north has tundra climate. The rainfall is 500-1000 mm spread throughout the year, except in the Mediterranean, where there is summer drought. Geographical conditions provide significantly more favorable temperature and precipitation conditions than corresponding latitude zones of other continents.
The climate is dominated by the west wind belt and its annual displacement, to the south in winter, to the north in summer. This commute is of particular importance to Southern Europe. The wide North Atlantic current brings temperate water to the sea outside Western Europe, where there is a branch. The most important continuation of the North Atlantic Current is the Norwegian Atlantic Current, which transports large amounts of Atlantic water to high latitudes. The wide opening to the Arctic Ocean is an important geographical factor. The large area of ice-free water in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean is taking the tide of cold air propulsion from the pack ice.
Almost continuous mountains from the Pyrenees to Asia Minor close to the exchange of air in the north-south direction, while air currents from the west are only hindered by smaller rock formations. The mountains in Norway and Sweden are of major importance in this way. While the west coast here has milder winters than anywhere else at such high latitudes, there is quite severe winter cold in the valleys a few hundred miles farther east.
The Mediterranean is an important climate regulator that dampens the temperature extremes and provides the air with a water vapor equivalent of approx. 1.5 m water height per year. In summer, the Mediterranean countries are dominated by an outlet of the Azorean high pressure. This gives sunny summer and drying time, but some rainfall, especially over the hillsides near the coast. In the winter, the west wind makes itself felt with unstable city gun, and wandering low pressure with contact activity. Relatively rare cold air from the continent in the northeast can give short periods of cold and snowfall far south. In the mountains from Sierra Nevada to the Balkans, there is annual snow cover in the winter.
|Country||Average temperature / day|
|Albania||25 ° C (Aug), 7 ° C (Jan)|
|Armenia||Yerevan 26 ° C (July), -4 ° C (Jan)|
|Azerbaijan||Baku 26 ° C (July), 4 ° C (Jan-Feb)|
|Belgium||17.5 ° C (July), 2 ° C (Jan)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Sarajevo 1 ° C (Jan), 21 ° C (Jul-Aug)|
|Bulgaria||Sofia –1 ° C (Jan), 21 ° C (Jul – Aug)|
|Cyprus||Nicosia 27 ° C (July – Aug), 12 ° C (Jan – Feb)|
|Denmark||16 ° C (July), 0 ° C (Jan)|
|Estonia||Tallinn 16 ° C (July), -3 ° C (Jan)|
|Finland||Helsinki 17 ° C (July), -6 ° C (Jan)|
|France||Paris 19 ° C (July), 3 ° C (Jan)|
|Georgia||Tbilisi 1 ° C (Jan), 24 ° C (Aug)|
|Greece||Athens 27 ° C (July), 10 ° C (Jan)|
|Ireland||Dublin 4.5 ° C (Jan), 15 ° C (July)|
|Iceland||Reykjavík 11 ° C (July), 1 ° C (Jan)|
|Italy||Rome 26 ° C (July), 7 ° C (Jan)|
|Kosovo||Prishtina 23 ° C (July), 1 ° C (Jan)|
|Croatia||Zagreb 0 ° C (Jan), 22 ° C (July)|
|Latvia||Riga 17 ° C (July), -3 ° C (Jan)|
|Lithuania||Vilnius -5 ° C (Jan), 17 ° C (July)|
|Northern Macedonia||Skopje 0 ° C (Jan), 24 ° C (July)|
|Malta||Valletta 26 ° C (Aug), 12 ° C (Jan)|
|Moldova||Chisinau 21 ° C (July), -4 ° C (Jan)|
|Montenegro||Podgorica 26 ° C (July), 5 ° C (Jan)|
|Netherlands||17 ° C (July), 2 ° C (Jan)|
|Norway||Oslo 16 ° C (July), -4 ° C (Jan)|
|Poland||Warsaw 20 ° C (July), -4 ° C (Jan)|
|Portugal||Lisbon 11 ° C (Jan), 22 ° C (Aug)|
|Romania||Bucharest 23 ° C (Jul – Aug), –2.5 ° C (Jan)|
|Russia||Moscow 19 ° C (July), -10 ° C (Jan)|
|Switzerland||Zurich 1 ° C (Jan), 17 ° C (July)|
|Serbia||Belgrade 22 (C (July), 2 ºC (January)|
|Slovakia||Bratislava –1 ° C (January), 21 ° C (July)|
|Slovenia||Ljubljana –1 ° C (Jan), 21 ° C (July)|
|Spain||Madrid 24 ° C (July), 5 ° C (Jan)|
|UK||London 18 ° C (July), 4 ° C (Jan)|
|Sweden||Stockholm -3 ° C (Feb), 17 ° C (July)|
|Czech Republic||Prague 19 ° C (July), -1 ° C (Jan)|
|Turkey||Ankara 23 ° C (July-Aug), 0 ° C (Jan)|
|Germany||Berlin 19 ° C (July), 0 ° C (Jan)|
|Ukraine||Kiev -6 ° C (Jan), 20 ° C (July)|
|Hungary||Budapest 0 ° C (Jan), 22 ° C (July)|
|Vatican City State||–|
|Belarus||Minsk -5 ° C (Jan), 19 ° C (July)|
|Austria||Vienna -0.7 ° C (Jan), 19.7 ° C (July)|
According to Countryaah, Europe can be divided into four unclearly limited climates:
A strip along the coast
A strip along the coast from Iberian Peninsula to northern Scandinavia and the islands outside is characterized by the close contact with the sea. There is rainfall for all seasons, but with maximum late fall and early winter. The annual sum is 750–1000 mm, significantly more in some mountain areas. Normal winter temperature is from around 10 °C in the south to just below 0 °C in the north. There is no annual snow cover in the lowlands, except the border area in the north. The summers are relatively cool; July means near 20 °C in the south, 10 °C in the north where there is a transition to tundra climate.
The central transition zone
The central transition zone extends from the mountains north of the Mediterranean to Finnmark. The western border follows the mountains of Scandinavia to the south to the northwestern Mediterranean (Golfe du Lion), the eastern runs from the Baltic to the western Black Sea. This area has a less maritime feel; Cold and snowy ground is common, but there is rarely longer snow cover. Here, too, there is rainfall for all seasons, but most often with a marked summer maximum. The annual funds are from approx. 750 mm to over 1000 mm. The average temperature for July is slightly above 20 °C in the south, approx. 10 °C to the far north. The January average is around 0 °C, but down to −10 °C in the north.
The easternmost area
The easternmost region comprises largely the European part of Russia as well as Belarus and Ukraine. The climate is continental with July means around 25 ° C, partly more, but down to 10 °C in the north. The January funds are approx. 0 °C in a small area farthest south, but decreases to −15 °C in the northeast. Precipitation areas from the Atlantic Ocean apply to all seasons, but the outfalls from the Siberian high pressure put a damper on the activity. Relatively low air pressure in summer facilitates the inflow of moist air and the release of showers. The rainfall is greatest in the summer, the annual totals go up to 500–700 mm in the central part, down to approx. 250 mm in the far north and below 250 mm in a steppe area in the southeast.
The Mediterranean region has a strong seasonal precipitation climate. In the winter, the west wind belt applies, and the elongated sea area provides favorable conditions for the penetration of migratory rainfall systems and the release of showers. The precipitation sum for January is evenly above 50–100 mm, while in July it is approx. 10 mm. Summer showers triggered over land, especially the mountain slopes in the north, can provide average Christmas summers of up to approx. 25 mm. The average temperature for January is around 10 °C and down to 0 °C above the inland furthest north. The average temperature for July is approx. 25 °C.
Mountains make up a relatively small part of Europe’s area, but by their effect on the air currents have a great impact on the climate. The mountain climate itself is complicated, depending on altitude and orientation. Temperature drops with altitude are around 2/3 °C per 100 m, something more in summer, less in winter. The mountain generally has more wind, more fog and more rainfall than nearby lowlands. While lowland rainfall rarely exceeds 1000 mm, maximum areas with several thousand millimeters of precipitation are found in mountainous regions near the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. Large winter precipitation favors the formation of glaciers.